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二进制部署k8s 1.18.5

 
目前生产部署Kubernetes集群主要有两种方式:
1、kubeadm
Kubeadm是一个K8s部署工具,提供kubeadm init和kubeadm join,用于快速部署Kubernetes集群。
官方地址:https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/setup-tools/kubeadm/kubeadm/
 
2、二进制包
从github下载发行版的二进制包,手动部署每个组件,组成Kubernetes集群。
Kubeadm降低部署门槛,但屏蔽了很多细节,遇到问题很难排查。如果想更容易可控,推荐使用二进制包部署Kubernetes集群,虽然手动部署麻烦点,期间可以学习很多工作原理,也利于后期维护。
 
#本文通过二进制方式部署k8s
一、环境配置
单Master服务器规划:
操作系统: Centos7.8_x64
Docker: 19-ce  
Kubernetes :1.18
硬件配置:2GB或更多RAM,2个CPU或更多CPU,硬盘30GB或更多
 
单Master服务器规划:
角色                    IP                  组件
k8s-master   172.20.10.9    kube-apiserver,kube-controller-manager,kube-scheduler,etcd
k8s-node1    172.20.10.6    kubelet,kube-proxy,docker ,etcd
k8s-node2    172.20.10.7    kubelet,kube-proxy,docker,etcd
 
操作系统初始化配置
# 关闭防火墙
systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld
 
# 关闭selinux
sed -i ‘s/enforcing/disabled/’ /etc/selinux/config  # 永久
setenforce 0  # 临时
 
# 关闭swap
swapoff -a  # 临时
sed -ri ‘s/.*swap.*/#&/’ /etc/fstab    # 永久
 
# 根据规划设置主机名
hostnamectl set-hostname <hostname>
 
# 在master添加hosts
cat >> /etc/hosts << EOF
172.20.10.9 k8s-master
172.20.10.6 k8s-node1
172.20.10.7 k8s-node2
EOF
 
# 将桥接的IPv4流量传递到iptables的链
cat > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf << EOF
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
EOF
sysctl –system  # 生效
 
# 时间同步
yum install ntpdate -y
ntpdate time.windows.com
 
二、部署Etcd集群
Etcd 是一个分布式键值存储系统,Kubernetes使用Etcd进行数据存储,所以先准备一个Etcd数据库,为解决Etcd单点故障,应采用集群方式部署,这里使用3台组建集群,可容忍1台机器故障,当然,你也可以使用5台组建集群,可容忍2台机器故障。
节点名称    IP
etcd-1    172.20.10.9
etcd-2     172.20.10.6
etcd-3    172.20.10.7
 
2.1 准备cfssl证书生成工具
找任意一台服务器操作,这里用Master节点:
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl_linux-amd64
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssljson_linux-amd64
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64
chmod +x cfssl_linux-amd64 cfssljson_linux-amd64 cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64
mv cfssl_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssl
mv cfssljson_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssljson
mv cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 /usr/bin/cfssl-certinfo
 
2.2 生成Etcd证书
1、自签证书颁发机构(CA)
mkdir -p ~/TLS/{etcd,k8s}
cd TLS/etcd
 
cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  “signing”: {
    “default”: {
      “expiry”: “87600h”
    },
    “profiles”: {
      “www”: {
         “expiry”: “87600h”,
         “usages”: [
            “signing”,
            “key encipherment”,
            “server auth”,
            “client auth”
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF
 
cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    “CN”: “etcd CA”,
    “key”: {
        “algo”: “rsa”,
        “size”: 2048
    },
    “names”: [
        {
            “C”: “CN”,
            “L”: “Beijing”,
            “ST”: “Beijing”
        }
    ]
}
EOF
 
生成证书:
cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca –
ls *pem
ca-key.pem  ca.pem
 
2、使用自签CA签发Etcd HTTPS证书
cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    “CN”: “etcd”,
    “hosts”: [
    “172.20.10.9”,
    “172.20.10.6”,
    “172.20.10.7”
    ],
    “key”: {
        “algo”: “rsa”,
        “size”: 2048
    },
    “names”: [
        {
            “C”: “CN”,
            “L”: “BeiJing”,
            “ST”: “BeiJing”
        }
    ]
}
EOF
 
生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=www server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server
ls server*pem
server-key.pem  server.pem
 
2.3 从Github下载二进制文件
wget https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases/download/v3.4.9/etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64.tar.gz
 
2.4 部署Etcd集群
以下在节点1上操作,为简化操作,待会将节点1生成的所有文件拷贝到节点2和节点3.
1、创建工作目录并解压二进制包
mkdir /opt/etcd/{bin,cfg,ssl} -p
tar zxvf etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64.tar.gz
mv etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64/{etcd,etcdctl} /opt/etcd/bin/
 
2、创建etcd配置文件
cat > /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf << EOF
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME=”etcd-1″
ETCD_DATA_DIR=”/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd”
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS=”https://172.20.10.9:2380″
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS=”https://172.20.10.9:2379″
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS=”https://172.20.10.9:2380″
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS=”https://172.20.10.9:2379″
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER=”etcd-1=https://172.20.10.9:2380,etcd-2=https://172.20.10.6:2380,etcd-3=https://172.20.10.7:2380″
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN=”etcd-cluster”
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE=”new”
EOF
 
#ETCD_NAME:节点名称,集群中唯一
#ETCD_DATA_DIR:数据目录
#ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS:集群通信监听地址
#ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS:客户端访问监听地址
#ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS:集群通告地址
#ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS:客户端通告地址
#ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER:集群节点地址
#ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN:集群Token
#ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE:加入集群的当前状态,new是新集群,existing表示加入已有集群
 
3、systemd管理etcd
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Etcd Server
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target
[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=/opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf
ExecStart=/opt/etcd/bin/etcd \
–cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
–key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
–peer-cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
–peer-key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
–trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
–peer-trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
–logger=zap
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
 
4、把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径:
cp ~/TLS/etcd/ca*pem ~/TLS/etcd/server*pem /opt/etcd/ssl/
 
5、将节点1中的以下文件传输到2和3节点
scp -r /opt/etcd/ root@172.20.10.6:/opt/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@172.20.10.6:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
scp -r /opt/etcd/ root@172.20.10.7:/opt/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@172.20.10.7:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
 
发送过去之后,分别编辑/opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf文件,修改etcd_name和urls地址
二进制部署k8s 1.18.5
 
6、同时启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start etcd
systemctl enable etcd
 
7、查看集群状态:
ETCDCTL_API=3 /opt/etcd/bin/etcdctl –cacert=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem –cert=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem –key=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem –endpoints=”https://172.20.10.9:2379,https://172.20.10.6:2379,https://172.20.10.7:2379″ endpoint health
二进制部署k8s 1.18.5
#如果有问题第一步先看日志:/var/log/message 或 journalctl -u etcd
 
三、安装Docker
【本部分操作每个节点都要执行】
1、下载docker包
wget https://download.docker.com/linux/static/stable/x86_64/docker-19.03.9.tgz
#这里采用二进制安装,用yum安装也一样。
tar zxvf docker-19.03.9.tgz
mv docker/* /usr/bin
 
2、systemd管理docker
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/docker.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Docker Application Container Engine
Documentation=https://docs.docker.com
After=network-online.target firewalld.service
Wants=network-online.target
[Service]
Type=notify
ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
LimitNOFILE=infinity
LimitNPROC=infinity
LimitCORE=infinity
TimeoutStartSec=0
Delegate=yes
KillMode=process
Restart=on-failure
StartLimitBurst=3
StartLimitInterval=60s
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
 
3、创建配置文件阿里云加速
mkdir -p /etc/docker
tee /etc/docker/daemon.json <<-‘EOF’
{
  “registry-mirrors”: [“https://ojr73abz.mirror.aliyuncs.com”]
}
EOF
 
4、启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start docker
systemctl status docker
systemctl enable docker
 
四、部署Master Node
4.1 生成kube-apiserver证书
1、自签证书颁发机构(CA)
cd TLS/k8s
cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  “signing”: {
    “default”: {
      “expiry”: “87600h”
    },
    “profiles”: {
      “kubernetes”: {
         “expiry”: “87600h”,
         “usages”: [
            “signing”,
            “key encipherment”,
            “server auth”,
            “client auth”
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF
cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    “CN”: “kubernetes”,
    “key”: {
        “algo”: “rsa”,
        “size”: 2048
    },
    “names”: [
        {
            “C”: “CN”,
            “L”: “Beijing”,
            “ST”: “Beijing”,
            “O”: “k8s”,
            “OU”: “System”
        }
    ]
}
EOF
 
生成证书:
cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca –
ls *pem
ca-key.pem  ca.pem
 
2、使用自签CA签发kube-apiserver HTTPS证书
创建证书申请文件:
cd TLS/k8s
cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    “CN”: “kubernetes”,
    “hosts”: [
      “10.0.0.1”,
      “127.0.0.1”,
      “172.20.10.9”,
      “172.20.10.6”,
      “172.20.10.7”,
      “172.20.10.5”,
      “172.20.10.8”,
      “172.20.10.10”,
      “172.20.10.4”,
      “kubernetes”,
      “kubernetes.default”,
      “kubernetes.default.svc”,
      “kubernetes.default.svc.cluster”,
      “kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local”
    ],
    “key”: {
        “algo”: “rsa”,
        “size”: 2048
    },
    “names”: [
        {
            “C”: “CN”,
            “L”: “BeiJing”,
            “ST”: “BeiJing”,
            “O”: “k8s”,
            “OU”: “System”
        }
    ]
}
EOF
注:上述文件hosts字段中IP为所有Master/LB/VIP IP,一个都不能少!为了方便后期扩容可以多写几个预留的IP。
生成证书:
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server
ls server*pem
server-key.pem  server.pem
 
4.2 从Github下载二进制文件
下载地址:https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/blob/master/CHANGELOG/CHANGELOG-1.18.md
注:打开链接会发现里面有很多包,下载一个server包就够了,包含了Master和Worker Node二进制文件。
wget https://dl.k8s.io/v1.18.5/kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
 
4.3 解压二进制包
mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs}
tar zxvf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kube-apiserver kube-scheduler kube-controller-manager /opt/kubernetes/bin
cp kubectl /usr/bin/
 
4.4 部署kube-apiserver
1、创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf << EOF
KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS=”–logtostderr=false \\
–v=2 \\
–log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
–etcd-servers=https://172.20.10.9:2379,https://172.20.10.6:2379,https://172.20.10.7:2379 \\
–bind-address=172.20.10.9 \\
–secure-port=6443 \\
–advertise-address=172.20.10.9 \\
–allow-privileged=true \\
–service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
–enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,ResourceQuota,NodeRestriction \\
–authorization-mode=RBAC,Node \\
–enable-bootstrap-token-auth=true \\
–token-auth-file=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv \\
–service-node-port-range=30000-32767 \\
–kubelet-client-certificate=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem \\
–kubelet-client-key=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
–tls-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem  \\
–tls-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
–client-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
–service-account-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
–etcd-cafile=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \\
–etcd-certfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \\
–etcd-keyfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \\
–audit-log-maxage=30 \\
–audit-log-maxbackup=3 \\
–audit-log-maxsize=100 \\
–audit-log-path=/opt/kubernetes/logs/k8s-audit.log”
EOF
注:上面两个\ \ 第一个是转义符,第二个是换行符,使用转义符是为了使用EOF保留换行符。
#–logtostderr:启用日志
#—v:日志等级
#–log-dir:日志目录
#–etcd-servers:etcd集群地址
#–bind-address:监听地址
#–secure-port:https安全端口
#–advertise-address:集群通告地址
#–allow-privileged:启用授权
#–service-cluster-ip-range:Service虚拟IP地址段
#–enable-admission-plugins:准入控制模块
#–authorization-mode:认证授权,启用RBAC授权和节点自管理
#–enable-bootstrap-token-auth:启用TLS bootstrap机制
#–token-auth-file:bootstrap token文件
#–service-node-port-range:Service nodeport类型默认分配端口范围
#–kubelet-client-xxx:apiserver访问kubelet客户端证书
#–tls-xxx-file:apiserver https证书
#–etcd-xxxfile:连接Etcd集群证书
#–audit-log-xxx:审计日志
 
2、拷贝刚才生成的证书
把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径:
cp ~/TLS/k8s/ca*pem ~/TLS/k8s/server*pem /opt/kubernetes/ssl/
 
3、启用 TLS Bootstrapping 机制
TLS Bootstraping:Master apiserver启用TLS认证后,Node节点kubelet和kube-proxy要与kube-apiserver进行通信,必须使用CA签发的有效证书才可以,当Node节点很多时,这种客户端证书颁发需要大量工作,同样也会增加集群扩展复杂度。为了简化流程,Kubernetes引入了TLS bootstraping机制来自动颁发客户端证书,kubelet会以一个低权限用户自动向apiserver申请证书,kubelet的证书由apiserver动态签署。所以强烈建议在Node上使用这种方式,目前主要用于kubelet,kube-proxy还是由我们统一颁发一个证书。
TLS bootstraping 工作流程:
二进制部署k8s 1.18.5
创建上述配置文件中token文件:
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv << EOF
4629124dfa14d8e21e9b0a45a74fbb57,kubelet-bootstrap,10001,”system:node-bootstrapper”
EOF
 
#token也可自行生成替换:
#head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ‘ ‘
 
4、systemd管理apiserver
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-apiserver \$KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
 
5、启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-apiserver
systemctl enable kube-apiserver
 
6、授权kubelet-bootstrap用户允许请求证书
kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap \
–clusterrole=system:node-bootstrapper \
–user=kubelet-bootstrap
 
4.5 部署kube-controller-manager
1、创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf << EOF
KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS=”–logtostderr=false \\
–v=2 \\
–log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
–leader-elect=true \\
–master=127.0.0.1:8080 \\
–bind-address=127.0.0.1 \\
–allocate-node-cidrs=true \\
–cluster-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 \\
–service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
–cluster-signing-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
–cluster-signing-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem  \\
–root-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
–service-account-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
–experimental-cluster-signing-duration=87600h0m0s”
EOF
#–master:通过本地非安全本地端口8080连接apiserver。
#–leader-elect:当该组件启动多个时,自动选举(HA)
#–cluster-signing-cert-file/–cluster-signing-key-file:自动为kubelet颁发证书的CA,与apiserver保持一致
 
2、systemd管理controller-manager
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-controller-manager \$KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
 
3、启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-controller-manager
systemctl enable kube-controller-manager
 
4.6 部署kube-scheduler
1、创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.conf << EOF
KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS=”–logtostderr=false \
–v=2 \
–log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \
–leader-elect \
–master=127.0.0.1:8080 \
–bind-address=127.0.0.1″
EOF
 
2、systemd管理scheduler
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-scheduler.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Scheduler
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-scheduler \$KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
 
3、启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-scheduler
systemctl enable kube-scheduler
 
4、查看集群状态
所有组件都已经启动成功,通过kubectl工具查看当前集群组件状态:
kubectl get cs
[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR
controller-manager   Healthy   ok                  
scheduler            Healthy   ok                  
etcd-1               Healthy   {“health”:”true”}   
etcd-2               Healthy   {“health”:”true”}   
etcd-0               Healthy   {“health”:”true”}
如上输出说明Master节点组件运行正常。
 
五、部署Worker Node
下面还是在Master Node上操作,即同时作为Worker Node
5.1 创建工作目录并拷贝二进制文件
在所有worker node创建工作目录:
mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs}
 
从master节点拷贝:
cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kubelet kube-proxy /opt/kubernetes/bin   # 本地拷贝
 
5.2 部署kubelet
1、创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf << EOF
KUBELET_OPTS=”–logtostderr=false \\
–v=2 \\
–log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
–hostname-override=k8s-master \\
–network-plugin=cni \\
–kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig \\
–bootstrap-kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/bootstrap.kubeconfig \\
–config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml \\
–cert-dir=/opt/kubernetes/ssl \\
–pod-infra-container-image=lizhenliang/pause-amd64:3.0″
EOF
#–hostname-override:显示名称,集群中唯一
#–network-plugin:启用CNI
#–kubeconfig:空路径,会自动生成,后面用于连接apiserver
#–bootstrap-kubeconfig:首次启动向apiserver申请证书
#–config:配置参数文件
#–cert-dir:kubelet证书生成目录
#–pod-infra-container-image:管理Pod网络容器的镜像
 
2、配置参数文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeletConfiguration
apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
address: 0.0.0.0
port: 10250
readOnlyPort: 10255
cgroupDriver: cgroupfs
clusterDNS:
– 10.0.0.2
clusterDomain: cluster.local
failSwapOn: false
authentication:
  anonymous:
    enabled: false
  webhook:
    cacheTTL: 2m0s
    enabled: true
  x509:
    clientCAFile: /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem
authorization:
  mode: Webhook
  webhook:
    cacheAuthorizedTTL: 5m0s
    cacheUnauthorizedTTL: 30s
evictionHard:
  imagefs.available: 15%
  memory.available: 100Mi
  nodefs.available: 10%
  nodefs.inodesFree: 5%
maxOpenFiles: 1000000
maxPods: 110
EOF
 
3、生成kubeconfig文件
KUBE_APISERVER=”https://172.20.10.9:6443″ # apiserver IP:PORT
TOKEN=”4629124dfa14d8e21e9b0a45a74fbb57″ # 与token.csv里保持一致
# 生成 kubelet bootstrap kubeconfig 配置文件
kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  –certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  –embed-certs=true \
  –server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  –kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-credentials “kubelet-bootstrap” \
  –token=${TOKEN} \
  –kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-context default \
  –cluster=kubernetes \
  –user=”kubelet-bootstrap” \
  –kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config use-context default –kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
 
拷贝到配置文件路径:
cp bootstrap.kubeconfig /opt/kubernetes/cfg
 
4、systemd管理kubelet
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
After=docker.service
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kubelet \$KUBELET_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
 
5、启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kubelet
 
5.3 批准kubelet证书申请并加入集群
# 查看kubelet证书请求
[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get csr
NAME                                                   AGE   SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR           CONDITION
node-csr-CB09c-8WJWGS7iXLYnCxbS69JI772noGNmbKbJ9UiuY   30s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   Pending
# 批准申请
kubectl certificate approve node-csr-CB09c-8WJWGS7iXLYnCxbS69JI772noGNmbKbJ9UiuY
# 查看节点
[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get node
NAME         STATUS     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
k8s-master   NotReady   <none>   48s   v1.18.5
注:由于网络插件还没有部署,节点会没有准备就绪 NotReady
 
5.4 部署kube-proxy
1、创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf << EOF
KUBE_PROXY_OPTS=”–logtostderr=false \\
–v=2 \\
–log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
–config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml”
EOF
 
2、配置参数文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeProxyConfiguration
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
bindAddress: 0.0.0.0
metricsBindAddress: 0.0.0.0:10249
clientConnection:
  kubeconfig: /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig
hostnameOverride: k8s-master
clusterCIDR: 10.0.0.0/24
EOF
 
3、生成kube-proxy.kubeconfig文件
生成kube-proxy证书:
cd TLS/k8s
cat > kube-proxy-csr.json << EOF
{
  “CN”: “system:kube-proxy”,
  “hosts”: [],
  “key”: {
    “algo”: “rsa”,
    “size”: 2048
  },
  “names”: [
    {
      “C”: “CN”,
      “L”: “BeiJing”,
      “ST”: “BeiJing”,
      “O”: “k8s”,
      “OU”: “System”
    }
  ]
}
EOF
 
# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy
ls kube-proxy*pem
kube-proxy-key.pem  kube-proxy.pem
 
cp -p kube-proxy-key.pem  kube-proxy.pem /opt/kubernetes/ssl/
 
生成kubeconfig文件:
cd /opt/kubernetes/ssl/
vim kubeconfig.sh,写入以下内容:
KUBE_APISERVER=”https://172.20.10.9:6443″
 
kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  –certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  –embed-certs=true \
  –server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  –kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy \
  –client-certificate=./kube-proxy.pem \
  –client-key=./kube-proxy-key.pem \
  –embed-certs=true \
  –kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-context default \
  –cluster=kubernetes \
  –user=kube-proxy \
  –kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config use-context default –kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
保存并执行该脚本,sh kubeconfig.sh
拷贝到配置文件指定路径:
cp kube-proxy.kubeconfig /opt/kubernetes/cfg/
 
4、systemd管理kube-proxy
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-proxy.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Proxy
After=network.target
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-proxy \$KUBE_PROXY_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
 
5、启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-proxy
 
5.5 部署CNI网络
先准备好CNI二进制文件:
wget https://github.com/containernetworking/plugins/releases/download/v0.8.6/cni-plugins-linux-amd64-v0.8.6.tgz
 
解压二进制包并移动到默认工作目录:
mkdir -p /opt/cni/bin
tar zxvf cni-plugins-linux-amd64-v0.8.6.tgz -C /opt/cni/bin
 
部署CNI网络:
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
sed -i -r “s#quay.io/coreos/flannel:.*-amd64#lizhenliang/flannel:v0.12.0-amd64#g” kube-flannel.yml
默认镜像地址无法访问,修改为docker hub镜像仓库。
kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yml
kubectl get pods -n kube-system
kubectl get node
二进制部署k8s 1.18.5
部署好网络插件,Node准备就绪。
 
5.6 授权apiserver访问kubelet
cat > apiserver-to-kubelet-rbac.yaml << EOF
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  annotations:
    rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: “true”
  labels:
    kubernetes.io/bootstrapping: rbac-defaults
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
rules:
  – apiGroups:
      – “”
    resources:
      – nodes/proxy
      – nodes/stats
      – nodes/log
      – nodes/spec
      – nodes/metrics
      – pods/log
    verbs:
      – “*”
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: system:kube-apiserver
  namespace: “”
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
subjects:
  – apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
    kind: User
    name: kubernetes
EOF
kubectl apply -f apiserver-to-kubelet-rbac.yaml
 
5.7 新增加Worker Node
1、拷贝已部署好的Node相关文件到新节点
在master节点将Worker Node涉及文件拷贝到新节点172.20.10.6/172.20.10.7
scp -r /opt/kubernetes root@172.20.10.6:/opt/
scp -r /usr/lib/systemd/system/{kubelet,kube-proxy}.service root@172.20.10.6:/usr/lib/systemd/system
scp -r /opt/cni/ root@172.20.10.6:/opt/
scp /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem root@172.20.10.6:/opt/kubernetes/ssl
 
2、在两个node节点上删除kubelet证书和kubeconfig文件
rm -f /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig
rm -f /opt/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet*
注:这几个文件是证书申请审批后自动生成的,每个Node不同,必须删除重新生成。
 
3、两个node节点修改主机名
vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
–hostname-override=k8s-node1
vim /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml
hostnameOverride: k8s-node1
二进制部署k8s 1.18.5
二进制部署k8s 1.18.5
 
4、在两个node节点上启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kubelet
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-proxy
 
5、在Master上批准新Node kubelet证书申请
kubectl get csr
NAME                                                   AGE     SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR           CONDITION
node-csr-CB09c-8WJWGS7iXLYnCxbS69JI772noGNmbKbJ9UiuY   65m     kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   Approved,Issued
node-csr-Uectivw9ajBnkqruTHP86xCrNi2fwuR1NY3Ts_Pwe5E   2m24s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   Pending
node-csr-X2IvMCJp2yG4FwcQ8-f6N-U6Rz634T2F3nmEFdaBdQQ   2m20s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   Pending
[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl certificate approve node-csr-Uectivw9ajBnkqruTHP86xCrNi2fwuR1NY3Ts_Pwe5E
[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl certificate approve node-csr-X2IvMCJp2yG4FwcQ8-f6N-U6Rz634T2F3nmEFdaBdQQ
 
6、查看Node状态
kubectl get node
[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get node
NAME         STATUS   ROLES    AGE     VERSION
k8s-master   Ready    <none>   69m     v1.18.5
k8s-node1    Ready    <none>   3m8s    v1.18.5
k8s-node2    Ready    <none>   2m48s   v1.18.5
 
六、部署Dashboard和CoreDNS
6.1 部署Dashboard
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/v2.0.0-beta8/aio/deploy/recommended.yaml
 
默认Dashboard只能集群内部访问,修改Service为NodePort类型,暴露到外部:
vim recommended.yaml
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  type: NodePort
  ports:
    – port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
      nodePort: 30001
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
 
kubectl apply -f recommended.yaml
 
kubectl get pods,svc -n kubernetes-dashboard
二进制部署k8s 1.18.5
 
创建service account并绑定默认cluster-admin管理员集群角色:
kubectl create serviceaccount dashboard-admin -n kube-system
kubectl create clusterrolebinding dashboard-admin –clusterrole=cluster-admin –serviceaccount=kube-system:dashboard-admin
kubectl describe secrets -n kube-system $(kubectl -n kube-system get secret | awk ‘/dashboard-admin/{print $1}’)
会打印出token:
eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6Ii03RFpteXZEcndYVFE4QkllX1o2aTUxVE1jcmFMWWVxX003ZnZVVm5GSUkifQ.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.WPH3zCi3exn3nRiLtUJjXepowNx2Mp_udzTTcAbNbnCp75fadrT_pZjb1vMjVGMKWQUxxrcGZRMC8fkPg6YGAf4S8WhOBiwcY3Nky9xMl7nF_s1A6Vi6TqyZS2fpc6nRUOWeIqQJHRB0QTC4wgwNT6cPq26fqQL5au39tFIo9ar3n3h9WqtYz0hmENmpHzRr0tzwotyNvXHnAzDPdVN6GaPCQjSEx_PhNskNZLTPG1UjXVXWMww6i56ASxCWxTILAgXva2EMgJxLQTFlYs8CUyoTZ0NNoibijONVGLkfLSUc5bKdgRyok2ges2ye-HhBrO_RUvjDEnmORVkFyer-Cg
 
访问k8s-dashboard地址:https://NodeIP:30001 ,使用输出的token登录。
二进制部署k8s 1.18.5
 
6.2 部署CoreDNS
CoreDNS用于集群内部Service名称解析。
下载或上传coredns.yaml文件
kubectl apply -f coredns.yaml
[root@k8s-master ~]# kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                          READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
coredns-5ffbfd976d-9fjbb         1/1     Running   0          38s
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-5h6fv   1/1     Running   0          63m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-7c4nh   1/1     Running   0          37m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-ptqf9   1/1     Running   0          37m
 
DNS解析测试:
kubectl run -it –rm dns-test –image=busybox:1.28.4 sh
根据提示输入测试命令如:nslookup kubernetes

二进制部署k8s 1.18.5

 

 

 

 

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